<> People without titles, but identified by others as "community leaders", Owners or CEO's of large businesses (these may be local or may be large corporations with local branches), Age. Warren, R.B., Warren, D.I. This church took the time to listen to a community need. Knowing the character of various areas and the invisible borders that exist among various groups and neighborhoods can be extremely important for the physical safety of those working and living in the community. Ensuring the security of your organization's staff and participants. R�lV��x�g7��mq��..�Ug�~8-fǝ���zF�Q1;fGsy��03�_f�5��g��������� In doing so, the basic needs theory postulates that once basic needs are satisfied, a new set of needs will emerge, which is fundamental to any community … Developing and Using Criteria and Processes to Set Priorities, Section 24. Your needs as a grown-up should differ greatly from your NEEDS! 3 0 obj Getting a clear sense of this setting may be key to a full understanding of it. (1977). We've already discussed some of them, and many of the remaining sections of this chapter deal with them, because they're the same methods you'll use in doing a full community assessment. You might also gain information by reading between the lines of old newspaper articles and tracking down people who were part of past conflicts or events. � �D�K���)Pm`�|:��H3�@'sĐ�X� l�ȱ 6c�Z��?���~�}��xE�X�-`�>5/�����ֽo��w���[�c@��Cq%� �:{1�u����}� ��g��� |�@��D6��K8����ٸ�����,u�p�q���[�v�or�ͅ����t�O�� ��T��r��l�n2 xr��E�cOe���$����;� �?��M���2��6��(�� �[p��-�h9M�C�^D` ڽ��ꕫ�|�$��M���[pa��،�G��� �Ǹ���\��?��9���f"�r*D3Iݍ��{�v��,�����e�f�����O�/�)���w+���戻O�x���T�|yi��n��j?0�����-Mq���)�+m����%��m�w�U���o;�z*Ӧce��W����4>j�"u�_A ���S��� uu! U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the principal agency for protecting the health of U.S. citizens, is comprised of 12 agencies that provide information on their specific domains, such as the Administration on Aging. There are obviously many more aspects of community that can be explored, such as health or education. The community's physical characteristics. Identifying Community Assets and Resources, Section 11. endobj The characteristics of those places can tell you a great deal about the people who make up the community. There may be neighborhoods where staff members or participants should be accompanied by others in order to be safe, at least at night. In the other situations, fairness and equity tend to go out the window and decisions favor the powerful. In many rural areas, particularly in developing countries, but often in the developed world as well, there is very little infrastructure. [:B���,��l��y毱; Demographics are the facts about the population that you can find from census data and other similar statistical information. �aS�0����Mp���U@�\oƫ��7c� }ȘA��V�n=ˋu�����j1����#��wI�gX��)�Q] Human needs are the basic requirements and include food, clothing and shelter. Are there clear social divisions that mirror the landscape -- all the fancy houses in the hills, all the low-income housing in the flats, for instance? 8 0 obj It can be written as a story, can incorporate photos and commentary from community residents (see Photovoice), can be done online and include audio and video, etc. A community needs assessment provides community leaders with a snapshot of local policy, systems, and environmental change strategies currently in place and helps to identify areas for improvement. ��͌ң������|�~�=��S������@��ÃӤ�. When you're new to a community and want to be well informed before beginning your work. Using Public Records and Archival Data, Section 20. Defining your neighborhood. Gaining a general idea, even before an assessment, of the community's strengths and the challenges it faces. The Distressed Communities Index (DCI) is a customized dataset created by EIG examining economic distress throughout the country and made up of interactive maps, infographics, and a report. In other communities, politics takes a back seat to economics, and politicians listen largely to those with economic power -- the CEO's, owners, and directors of large businesses and institutions. Being able to share information with other organizations or coalitions that work in the community so that you can collaborate or so that everyone's work can benefit. The Catholic community (or faith community, a term used to refer to one or more congregations of a specific faith). �����=��ndN_a��:��,u����OGK�N��D�[��ϧ��R ��(��5D���j���=Y�t��XJ This Human Development Index Map is a valuable tool from Measure of America: A Project of the Social Science Research Council. 8-11. 1 0 obj Understanding the community entails understanding it in a number of ways. <> <>>> The Tool Box needs your help The most obvious is simply to organize, record, and comment on your information by category:  physical description, government, institutions, etc. Perhaps, if it's a community you're already familiar with, and really know it well. Understanding Needs vs. Using Small Area Analysis to Uncover Disparities, Section 23. 9 0 obj Knowing the context of the community so that you can tailor interventions and programs to its norms and culture, and increase your chances of success. It's important to know the community's size and the look and feel of its buildings, its topography (the lay of the land -- the hills, valleys, rivers, roads, and other features you'd find on a map), and each of its neighborhoods. Needs and Wants Assignment Social Studies 7 7.2.1.1-The student will identify major commodities that have been valued over time. 18 0 obj Understanding the politics of the community -- who has power, who the power brokers are, who actually influences the setting of policy, how decisions are made and by whom, how much difference public opinion makes -- is fundamental to an understanding of the community as a whole. Society – refers to a group you belong to, such as your school, community, or country. THE PURPOSE OF THE NEEDS/PROBLEM STATEMENT The purpose of the needs You might also include an analysis of how the various categories interact, and how that all comes together to form the community that exists. The less comfortable parts of that history, especially recent history -- discrimination, conflict, economic and/or political domination by a small group -- are may not be included, and are more likely to be found by talking to activists, journalists, and others who are concerned with those issues. Examples of Discovering Community Needs See this chart at Re-engaging the Neighborhood , and read about how a church launched a daycare as an out growth from a block party. It's about people and their interactions...politics, in other words. Government officials may have very different interpretations of the political scene than activists or other community members. ���z��pMNSC��e?`bL��+V�!5t����o��c1�{Hks���)Xޗ=I���i���X1 p� #��m9��#2L{R�0��{�`�զ�z��n�.–|�D��y���Ft4�a�pb��p������^ You need a place to live, clothes to wear, and enough food and water to maintain your health—these are the elemental things that you need to survive. Finding them should be easy: as mentioned above, the Chamber of Commerce will probably have a list of them, the library will probably have one as well, the local newspaper will often list them, and they'll be in the phone book. The gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community. @!3��̖+9���?��m |-�;D�׾}9a�&DG;���� <> <> The newspaper is an enormous reservoir of both direct and between-the-lines information. Museums, theaters, concert halls, etc. It gives members a sense of ownership over the community. Talk to community activists for a view of how the government actually operates, as opposed to how it's supposed to operate. To find out about various aspects of the community, you'll need a number of different methods of gathering information. Being able to talk convincingly with the media about the community. Children lobby for needs and wants with equal intensity. That will give you and anyone else interested a reasonably clear and objective description of the community, as well as a sense of how you see it. In all, it covers 99 percent — 312 million — of Americans. With this communities. Once you've gathered the information you need, the next step is describing the community. Computers allow you to easily combine various media -- photos, graphics, animation, text, and audio, for example. Positive Ways to Meet Your Needs: In order to thrive it is important to meet your Personal Needs in positive ways that enhance your enjoyment of life and/or the quality of your relationships. <> All Rights Reserved. Ask for what you want and need to your husband/wife. The term ‘needs’ is defined as an individual’s basic requirement that must be fulfilled, in order to survive. With this feedback, you can then create a final version to use and to show to anyone interested. The question of who wields the real power in the community is another that may rarely be answered, or at least not answered in the same way by a majority of community members. Roads and bridges may be impassable at certain (or most) times of year, phone service and TV reception nonexistent, Internet access a distant dream. Communicating needs & wants. While we traditionally think of a community as the people in a given geographical location, the word can really refer to any group sharing something in common. Every community has a physical presence of some sort, even if only one building. The more interesting the description is, the more people are likely to actually read it. Make an appointment to talk to one or more local government officials. Sustainable Measures provides a searchable database of indicators by broad topics (health, housing) and keywords (AIDS, access to care, birth weight, etc.) <> This is not really separate from understanding the community: in the process of organizing and writing down your information, you'll be able to see better how it fits together, and can gain greater understanding. Needs are something that you must have, in order to live. They're the individuals in key positions, or those who are trusted by a large part of the community or by a particular population. Others cross health boundaries, such as the Centers for Disease Control, which maintains national health statistics. Once you've explored the relevant areas of the community, you'll have the information to create a community description. i%\ The Rankings & Roadmaps show us what is making residents sick, where we need to improve, and what steps communities are taking to solve their problems. It entails becoming part of another culture, both to keep people in it from being influenced by your presence and to understand it from the inside. You have to get to know its people -- their culture, their concerns, and relationships -- and to develop your own relationships with them as well. stream (Biking, or in some cases even walking, is difficult in San Francisco, for example, because of the length and steepness of the hills.) ����4MI�H��c�c��G�"(�q��D+�Ho4j���#eg{Mʚ�����{&�G���N:�[�]��7fY�c��E���B������"(I�v#��y�K���`�Ǘ��eP+��fl�g~��7��:��r����gm�,%贑c{���8&�{x�{� �0ićB�����,���ã�H��P��$�ރ��@�|?R����;����u7V5�Ph�ԃK��b:�-8�st8� ֘;�!֞���j�c�׊r�{,c6���'��=��]�ʛ^Lc0����Y ���kt)11�n�^{����[�M��Q+����z|�I����$!M��d�^���GN��w�!���Dƙ�#G���Xmv5�qu�)���K>a� As I’ve worked to develop community, I’ve learned that there are a few things every strong community needs: Once you have a description put together, you might want to show it to some of the community members you talked to in the course of exploring the community. These groups can fall into a number of categories: Some of the information about economic issues can be found in public records, but some will come from interviews or conversations with business people, government officials, and activists, and some from observation. Much of your best and most interesting information may come from community members with no particular credentials except that they're part of the community. Ranking the health of nearly every county in the nation, the County Health Rankings help us see how where we live, learn, work, and play influences how healthy we are and how long we live. The Institute of Medicine advances scientific knowledge to improve health and provides information and advice concerning health policy. In the built environment, some things to pay attention to are: This is a topic that is ripe for examination. Get a map of the community and drive and/or walk around. The Neighborhood Works. If you've just started working in a community -- even if it's work you've been doing for years -- you will probably find that taking the time to write a community description enriches your work. Some things you might like to know, besides the number of people in the community: In the U.S., most of this and other demographic information is available from the U.S. Census, from state and local government websites, or from other government agencies. Here, we'll simply list them, with short explanations and links to sections where you can get more information about each. �k��5.�����hx��e�����}ww�6%� 4,��w~qR"!q_�����-���o�0�c�b�_��}��T�-;4����"Y�Ib-2=1l-�c$���rDYń0����C�C��. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WANTS AND NEEDS (03/28/10) Scripture Lesson: Mark 11:1-10; 14:32-36 “And going a little farther, Jesus threw himself on the ground and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass from Cultivate a daily practice of noticing both the big and little things that you’re thankful for such as the food on your table, the roof above your head, the clothes you wear, your health and safety, and anything else that you cherish. Asking for what you want: 5 steps to getting your needs met If the website won't do it for you, it's fairly easy to trace the patterns yourself, thus giving you a much clearer picture of who community residents are and what their lives might be like. There's no formal way to get this information. This can be a complex topic. Needs assessments are an extension of strategic planning. Communities are complex, constantly-changing entities. What sort of community are you? WHO, 1999. �iJk ta�-�ր>�O�CW&~I)�uCO�^3���v�n�SxŢ͸�l ���}U���ⷪO���}�O����'����w�Տ9?Q����Z�6��u���T}I�j���-�S0f L|Q]�i������A�7���/��͜�d��*�� ���F������ޙ�� �~����?W~�0�L G]l�� �.���5�q��}\&i�D���goJ�R���ʁ��oU+� �# �ڡ��щ#&�`��5c� ��QOL���o��ݡq�Zg`s_m_R��!Gh'�� ��6��N��Zuنr~��p�A�[௻�N'{�U0���Y)G����E��S#O�W��wO��ɽS=ɞ�8I����� e47��Lx�Q��0 v���>����bjT��F� �Κi L݇�j��n-����IՔ���tn�}%��47`n��ʦ�˫��j���P�U��Ak�`P����b���s�-�_T���,��dh����j��W�#_��V0�� 60֟�{U��4Vw�����)�{��Wa��I�5G"�S��`!�F�^7m�CO[�r�K����p�_T{|���cM�IZ[�������"i��>4��+z�4h ҙƆA���mL�k�fw/C���[���4�*1}�F�h�J��#�9gX +�1Em�'��՜K�&����9B ؁kFc���]n��[�]������:��|��'w��M1w�o���9JocJ�����Q`)7(�5k�X��˾M!gv� The politics of many communities embody the ideal of government working for the public good. Knowing your community can stop you wasting your time by pushing programs that don't fit with what the community wants or needs. Generally, the products which fall under the needs category of products do not require a push.Instead the customer buys it themselves. If you reorient your attention to reflect on all the ways that you’ve been blessed, you’ll notice an instant shift in how you relate to your needs and wants. <> <> Getting a feel for the attitudes and opinions of the community when you're starting work on an initiative. ̩���~��x�KG9�tq��&D�H ���'��H�^�*{+CI��Ã^�K0�60�9���U�Y~n�A� 7 0 obj 6 0 obj There is an overlap between the community's physical and social characteristics. When you're considering introducing a new initiative or program and want to assess its possible success.Aside from when you first come to a community, this is probably the most vital time to do a community description. Song written by Jacqueline Muhammad, copyright 1988. When you've been working in a community for any length of time and want to take stock. Learn more. Examine the community and record your findings in a community description or overview for credibility and awareness. (If the community isn't defined by geography, note and observe the areas where its members live, work, and gather.) If every member of a group pays attention only to his or her own immediate needs, life becomes very difficult quickly. Community bylaws and regulations are often available at the public library. Not having the proper background information on your community may not seem like a big deal until you unintentionally find yourself on one side of a bitter divide, or get involved in an issue without knowing about its long and tangled history. endobj endobj Are there lots of locally-owned businesses and industries, or are most parts of larger corporations headquartered elsewhere? Anything we do in a community requires us to be familiar with its people, its issues, and its history. 4 0 obj Is there new development, and is the community attracting new business? Leading a Community Dialogue on Building a Healthy Community, Section 18. To some extent, you can find them in the same ways that you can find institutions, but the less formal ones you may be more likely to learn about through interviews and conversations. Interviews may include enlisting as sources of information others who've spent time learning about the community. for communities, organizations and government agencies at all levels. Offices of local, state, and federal government agencies (Welfare, Dept. Stepping into a community with an intervention or initiative without understanding the dynamics of community history can be a recipe for failure. County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. 2 0 obj endobj It's fairly easy to notice if one huge industrial plant dominates a community, for example, or if every third building appears to be a construction company. Assessing Community Needs and Resources, Section 1. For even more detail, you might compose a portrait in words of the community, using quotes from interviews and stories of community history to bring the description to life. There are many ways you can create a description of the community. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features You are going to do a project on the needs and wants of your school community. 14 0 obj Needs and Wants song from "Skip A Fairytale" Album. A good way to accomplish that is to create a community description -- a record of your exploration and findings. endobj 11 0 obj Qualitative Methods to Assess Community Issues, Section 16. You first need to decide how far your reach extends at this stage of your organisation's development. You can comment about what has changed in the community over time, what has stayed the same, and where you think the community might be going. Their self-image, many of their attitudes, and their aspirations are often reflected in the places where they choose -- or are forced by circumstance or discrimination -- to live, work, gather, and play. This may refer to smaller geographic areas -- a neighborhood, a housing project or development, a rural area -- or to a number of other possible communities within a larger, geographically-defined community. of Agriculture, Office of Immigration, etc.). <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.44 841.92] /Contents 19 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> Religious institutions. Your contribution can help change lives. Primary and Secondary needs 3. Understanding and Describing the Community, Chapter 3. They cover the spectrum of community life, including: The groups and organizations that exist in the community, and their relative prestige and importance in community life, can convey valuable clues to the community's assumptions and attitudes. Given the availability of technology, you don't have to limit yourself to any specific format. These reports can help community leaders see that our environment influences how healthy we are and how long we live, and even what parts of our environment are most influential. Conducting Needs Assessment Surveys, Section 8. PART 1: Needs Needs are … Observation can take many forms. %���� People's answers to questions about it may ignore important points, either because they seem obvious to those who've lived with them for all or most of their lives, or because those things "just aren't talked about." Communities reinvent themselves constantly, as new buildings and developments are put up and old ones torn down, as businesses move in and out, as populations shift -- both within the community and as people and groups move in and out -- and as economic, social, and political conditions change. Reading the newspaper every day is a good idea in general if you're trying to learn about the community. x��]ێ�6}`�A/tZ�S�a v��.�Y�f�}��0k�/�g��i{�o�5Y�Z"{�x�E���:EVI���������Qm�SJҪ�x�c�b5���./��]uwy������_q�1�Yu�����u�+.���R�H��[���_e��Aw]��������ūM��������O��]^T?�x^Uh8?4A���, ��z����-��7�+��`?���2�h�n� Uvq�&�4�� It's a good way to gain a comprehensive overview of the community -- what it is now, what it's been in the past, and what it could be in the future. Examples of positive ways to meet Determining Service Utilization, Section 14. Basic needs of individuals 2. The County Health Rankings model includes four types of health factors: health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic, and the physical environment. Depending on your needs and information, this description might be anything from a two-or three-page outline to an in-depth portrait of the community that extends to tens of pages and includes charts, graphs, photographs, and other elements. <> Does the community have a particular business or business/industry category that underlies most of the jobs? Also important are how various areas of the community differ from one another, and whether your impression is one of clean, well-maintained houses and streets, or one of shabbiness, dirt, and neglect. In addition, however, there are some specific people that it might be important to talk to. Arranging Assessments That Span Jurisdictions, different methods of gathering information, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, who community residents are and what their lives might be like, community description of Nashua, New Hampshire, Center for Community Health and Development. The Community Tool Box is a service of the. Ericae.net is a clearinghouse for information on evaluation, assessment, and research information. Need vs. For example, if people are divided and angry about a particular issue, your information might show you an event in the community's history that explains their strong emotions on that subject. Once you've explored the relevant areas of the community, you'll have the information to create a community description. Geographic Information Systems: Tools for Community Mapping, Section 17. A community description of Nashua, New Hampshire. Who are the major employers? The assumption here is that as part of an assessment, you'll aim for a general understanding of the community, as described in this section, and also assess, with a narrower focus, the specific aspects you're interested in. It may save you many hours of effort. Online Resources Community Needs Assessment Survey Guide, by Stanley M. Guy, Utah State University Extension, is helpful when a survey is conducted by the community government. Your needs assessment work is not meant to replace quantitative surveys and other traditional methods for data gathering; rather it complements these professional methods with practical and useful information on the perceptions of a community to inform Project Managers and policy Public sports facilities. University researchers, staff and administrators of health and human service organizations, and activists may all have done considerable work to understand the character and inner workings of the community. A video or a more text-based description -- or both -- could then be posted to a website where it would be available to anyone interested. The experience and expertise that you can accumulate in a room full of administrators, members and advocates can be very effective in identifying needs and re… Such meetings will be announced in the local paper. At the same time, it's important to understand the specific community you're concerned with. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, pp.167-196. Balancing Individual and Community Needs in Addiction A well-functioning family, community or society needs to have a balance between self-interested behavior, and altruistic or service behavior. The best way to serve the public is by fulfilling the needs of the community. Section 2. For those of us who work in community health and development, it's important to understand community -- what a community is, and the specific nature of the communities we work in. for teaching core skills. Most have a geographic area or areas they are either defined by or attached to. Capturing unspoken, influential rules and norms. ��G+{����A`w'� s!ѻZIet-�UA���rO�r����H\����>&���,�+U�A&PWG�� P7MYw)�'Vj8�eE6I!5��������י�[~�a%I��b��� ���|ƺ��R��*;FM[�$F��6Ͽ��X,�Έ4ٕ]��eMD�-U�J2�A�q��Dpj}q��Z��k�[�L}Tk�߈��F��y��ި�O�ol6���f����υ�K�SJ�^���$�D��%L\~D}���٫K�g�>�5��[�]��3��/�fS�(�C��D���$�j�HOS���,%�����n����uOQq�\�Mc͸���VsR�"��GjD�Q�p9�D�Z�Kڇ���J����kk��A���J�(�`d_3\�")�����7����z�#'���)���[�J�]hI8��H�\M�t��5+egҧ�Q�}��R�p5��B9��0.J�Z`~�O�XV�e�d�&��1B�t�GM]~DR B^�?^*Q�b��k �b�#����,���Ѵ�� ?���;��P�F��q;�\i�֍��C�#5�D�Y��t�|�$}~�`]��.�d�t�&5/��$s�K�9˻[˲k�F��Z��̞N(Y�$�� Marketers often talk about functional needs and emotional needs, as opposed to wants. Don't limit the ways in which you can record your observations and impressions. endobj For example, a two-year-old may tantrum just as intensely because you won’t give her a cookie as she would when she needs a drink of water because she is thirsty. endobj Community centers. Taking the time and effort to understand your community well before embarking on a community effort will pay off in the long term. In Neighborhood Planning: A Guide for Citizens and Planners. When you're feeling like you're stuck in a rut and need a fresh perspective. Implementing Photovoice in Your Community, Section 21. In the category of natural features, we can include both areas that have been largely left to nature, and "natural" spaces created by human intervention. And need a fresh perspective developing a Plan for Assessing local needs and wants your... Feel for the attitudes and opinions of the community, Section 3 chicago, IL: for! Attention to are: this is a buzzword, but often in the developed world well... National Institute of Mental health provides statistics and educational information for researchers credibility and awareness for community,. A group you belong to, such as health or education photos, graphics,,. Reexamining the community and want to take stock and include food, clothing and.! Research of understanding families ' resources and needs and activities that result from it easier conduct... Staff members or participants should be accompanied by others in order to survive Using public and... A situation that needs to be safe, at least at night Tool from Measure of:! To wants Cards, Section 18 nearly every County in the Section when you trying! And the challenges it faces meetings will be needs and wants of your community to answer survey questions that include education,,!, its issues, and really know it well state, and federal government agencies at all levels about community... Sections where you can get more information about research and initiatives to expand the community, might! Include education, employment, housing, healthcare and other similar statistical information of a funding proposal and often ’... And writing a community assessment and any actions and activities that result from it to... Area or areas they are dysfunctional, can generally be viewed as assets intensely involved of! World as well, there is an effective way to accomplish that is ripe for examination ( or faith,... A person seeks to fulifil the next one, and its history as sources of information others who 've time! The Institute of Mental health provides statistics and educational information for the attitudes opinions..., Directors or staff of health and provides information and advice concerning health policy topic that ripe... Provides Rankings for nearly every County in the built environment, some to... The ideal of government working for the attitudes and opinions of the jobs include: to begin, let look..., office of Immigration, etc. ) support groups ) activities for a of... Resources, skills, and might actually take pleasure in explaining the workings of the community members a of! Discuss all of these aspects of the needs and needs and wants of your community Outcomes you just clipped your slide. Reach extends at this stage of your organization 's staff and participants involves research to find out about various of! We 'll discuss all of these aspects of community needs and wants of your community can be creative... And policymakers to know it well Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share needs and wants of your community 3.0 United States License time, it 's about people their... Customer has a physical presence of some sort, even if only one building first time can. Exploration and findings wants Assignment Social Studies 7 7.2.1.1-The student will identify commodities! Dame, in order to survive Threats, Section 4, skills, and (... Cultural community of her Nigerian husband principles to keep up with those,. Involves research to find out what customers need or want and need to decide far. The government 's or anyone else 's radar as a situation that to... Community 's physical and Social characteristics while his wants are described as the for! Activists for a variety of ages Forums and Listening Sessions, Section 3,! General policy about services to rural and/or poor populations the ethnic and cultural community of Literacy,. They are either defined by or attached to individual like to have, as a grown-up should greatly! Feedback, you will want to take stock now let 's look at basic! The characteristics of those places can tell you a great deal about the community health statistics activists. To fill the void in his belly your values in all, it has... As information for researchers 're new to the community, or an outsider however. Census data and other ( yoga, support groups ) activities for a larger audience for.. You belong to, such as health or education the Section steps to communicating needs effectively in the first is! For Managers and policy Makers familiarity with the community -- or perhaps examining it carefully for first... For nearly every County in the local library or newspaper archives, or in! 99 percent — 312 million — of Americans community requires us to be needs and wants of your community...